Carnivores, Carnivora, and Frugivorous Carnivorans

I thought I might take a bit of time clarifying the differences among the terms carnivore, carnivora, and carnivoran as they are often confused… The term “carnivore” is one that is best defined by a simple food web: at the base (first trophic level) of the food web are the producers: plants. The second trophic

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Color vision, feathers, and dinosaurs

It is now known that feathers first evolved in dinosaurs. So-called protofeathers serve an insulation function, which would have been important to poikiotherms/ectotherms such as dinosaurs whose internal sources of heat would have been negligible. This is not such a problem if you are a very large dinosaur, but it can limit body mass decrease

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Elephants as seed dispersers

Over 90% of tree species in the tropics rely on animals to disperse their seeds…  Why?  Its simple: seeds are more likely survive and germinate if they are moved away from their parents because they avoid being noticed by rodent predators and fungal and bacterial pathogens. Many vertebrate animals disperse seeds, including birds, bats, primates (!!), and

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